Dredging and reclamation

In this section there are enclosed quotations from official technical reports concerning five main dredging jobs carried out for environmental reclamations, in four different areas of the world (Japan, U.S.A., Canada, China), by using the PNEUMA SYSTEM:

  1. Dredging of Osaka Harbour - Japan - Osaka Port Authority.

  2. PCB Cleanup Operations Duwamish Waterway - Seattle Harbour - WA - USA -
    EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) - U.S Corps of Engineers.

  3. Dredging of Gibraltar Lake - City of Santa Barbara - California - U.S.A. under the supervision of E.P.A. (Environmental Protection Agency).

  4. Contaminated Sediment Removal Technology Demonstration Program-Great Lake Action Plan - Canadian Government - Environment Canada - Ontario Region.

  5. Restoration of the Shenzhen Lake - Guandong Province (China)
    Dong Jiang Water Supply Bureau

1) Dredging of Osaka Harbour - Japan - Osaka Port Authority

A. Operating Data Form

Location   Osaka Bay - Port of Osaka Japan

Customer Osaka Port Authority

Period      Performance trial on 1971
               Uninterrupted dredging operation from 1974 to 1990

Job Description

Dredging of silty/clayey sediments, highly polluted, with reflow on hopper barges.
Dredging depth 12 m. After a performance trial carried on 1971 with a Pneuma Pump model 300/60, capacity of 360 cu.m./hour of mixture, installed on an existing pontoon, the dredging job has been carried out with a Pneuma Pump model 450/80, capacity of 600 cu.m./hour of mixture, outfitted on a purpose engineered dredge pontoon manufactured by Sumitomo.

Volume of material dredged Some millions of cu. m.

Content of Solid Material in the Dredge Mixture Up to 90% in volume of sediments in the mixture.

Induced Turbidity Practically ZERO

B. Reports and references

The Japan Dredger Technical Society - n. 82 – July 1972
"Test Report on dredging by SIRSI* Pneuma System Pumps"
Yasushi Takamura - Manager, Technical Division et al
Port and Harbour Bureau - City of Osaka

quotation from pag. 10:
"............. the water transparency after the operation decreased by about
20-30 cm. under normal operation……….."
and para. 6 Conclusions:
"............. dredging Hedoro sediments in volume solid content ratio of
of natural sedimentary conditions is readily possible with Pneuma System…….."

The Japan Port and Harbour Association – Vol. 49 – 8 – 1972
"Hedoro dredging in Osaka Port area"
Yasushi Takamura - Manager, Technical Division et al
Port and Harbour Bureau - City of Osaka

see para. 6:
"..........among other techniques, for dredging Hedoro, that using the Pneuma Pump System may be considered the most effective and practical. If the above mentioned dredging technique is used, it should be possible to solve the problems efficiently without causing any secondary pollution which serves the double purpose of dealing with anti pollution and land reclamation work simultaneously."

Osaka Port Authority
"Study of Solid Dispersion into Aquatic Environment during SIRSI* -Pneuma
Pump Operation - part 1 and 2" - 1973

see Conclusions :
"it may be concluded that turbidity value................. during operation................. was practically ZERO."

The Japan Dredger Technical_Society - n. 95-September-1974
Operation Report on Skinkai - The Pneuma Dredge Shiro Kasajima - Manager 1st Construction Office Port and Harbour Bureau - City of Osaka

"On the Dredging Operation for Removal of Bottom Sediment in Osaka Port by the Pneuma Pump Dredge SHINKAI" - 1986
Shiro Kasajima - Manager, 1st Construction Office
Port and Harbour Bureau - City of Osaka.

"The Authority of Osaka City had noticed the excellent performance of Pneuma Pump System and undertaken the first mud dredging experiment in Japan with this system, which was introduced by an Italian Company S.I.R.S.I.* in December 1971. Through this experimental dredging, the suitability of Pneuma Pump System to the dredging of polluted mud has been well proven.
As part of the pollution control project of the port and harbour, the Bureau completed the Pneuma Dredger SHINKAI in July 1974 and then organized a dredging squadron together with the hopper barges that undertaken necessary modifications. The squadron has been engaged in dredging operations of polluted mud since November 1974 until today".

* first name of PNEUMA srl

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2) PCB Cleanup Operations - Duwamish Waterway - Seattle Harbour - Washington

A. Operating Data Form

Location   Duwamish Waterway - Seattle Harbour - Washington - USA

Customer Seattle District US Corps of Engineers

Period      March 1976

Job Description
On 13 September 1974, 260 gallons of PCB's where spilled into Slip 1 of the Duwamish Waterway, Seattle Harbour - Washington.
An emergency removal operation was undertaken by EPA, in which divers utilising small hand-held suction dredged to pump the water, PCB's and contaminated bottom sediments into settling tanks, was undertaken - An estimated 70-90 gallons of the PCB was removed. A Pneuma pump was utilised in March 1976 by the US Corps of Engineers for the first mayor dredging operations undertaken in the United States to remove PCB, obtaining the recovery with exceptionally low turbidity of the 80-90% of the total 250 gallons spilled.

Dredging Plant Pneuma plant model 600/100 - capacity cu.mt/h. 1.000 of mixture, mounted aboard the Corps of Engineers debris boat Puget.

Induced Turbidity "Exceptional low turbidity"

B. Report and References

- PCB Cleanup Operations Duwamish Waterway - Seattle Harbour - Washington Seattle District Corps of Engineers.
- Monitoring of trace constituents during PCB recovery dredging operation - Duwamish Waterway - prepared by US Environmental Protection Agency- Region X - Surveillance and Analysis Division Laboratory Branch - Washington - Dr. Joseph Blazevich et al - August 1977

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3) Dredging of the Gibraltar Lake - City of Santa barbara - California - U.S.A. under the supervision of E.P.A. (Enviromental Protection Agency)

A. Operating Data Form

Location   Gibraltar Lake
Santa Barbara - California U.S.A.


Customer City of Santa Barbara
EPA Clean Lakes Program

Consultant Spencer Engineering - Santa Barbara

Contractor Granite Construction Co. - Watsonville California

Period 1981

Job Description Dredging, from the water reservoir of Santa Barbara, of silty/clayey bottom material highly polluted with mercury, without interrupting the water supply to the city of Santa Barbara.
The dredge mixture reflowed from the bottom ( - 20 m. ) of the lake to the disposal site at an elevation of 35 m., over the water surface, and at a distance of 800 m. from the dredging location.

Volume of material dredged 92.000 cu. yard

Dredging Plant Pneuma Pump model 450/80, having an operating capacity of 600 cu.m./hour of mixture

Content of Solid Material in the Dredged Mixture
Average 40 - 50% in volume, up to 70% of “in situ sediments”

Induced Turbidity NONE


Customer as above

Contractor City of Santa Barbara, after acquisition of the Pneuma Dredge from Granite Construction Co.

Period 1982 - 1986

Job Description As above

Volume of material dredged 626.000 cu. yard

B. Reports and references

Gibraltar Lake Restoration Project - Final Report submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

prepared from
The City of Santa Barbara-Public Work Department Water Research Division - May 1987

quotation from pag. 53 :
"……… we pumped an average of 700-800 cu.yard slurry per hour with an average velocity of 7-9 feet per second and an average of 40-50% solids through a distance of 2300' and 170' of vertical head. At times, the percent solids would go to approximately 70%……"

and 55:
" The pump will out-perform the normal dredging methods and is an economical and efficient method of transporting toxic sediments without disturbance to the water supplies or environment."

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4) Contaminated Sediment Removal Technology Demonstration Program-Great Lake Action Plan - Canadian Government - Environment Canada - Ontario Region.

Environment Canada Environment Canada

Great Lakes Cleanup Fund
Contaminated Sediment Removal Program

Notice is hereby given that the Government of Canada, through Environment Canada, is seeking proposals or expressions of interests for the demonstration of technology suitable for the removal of Great Lakes contaminated sediment. Innovative technologies possessing the capability to excavate, extract or remove contaminated bottom sediments while eliminating adverse environmental effects will be eligible for funding. The objective of this program is to identify technologies by 1994 which are capable of cost-effective removal, handling and pre-treatment of contaminated sediments from the Great Lakes Area of Concern.


The Pneuma pump has been chosen, during an international selection between 125 contenders, by the Canadian Government within the context of the


having the purpose to define the most appropriate system for the dredging of the highly polluted bottoms of the Great Lakes.

The Pneuma Pump has been successfull in achieving the operational performance standards set by the program, notwithstanding the presence of large debris during the performance test carried out in Collingwood Harbour - Ontario - Canada during 1992.

A. Operating Data Form

Location Collingwood Harbour
Ontario - Canada

Customer Ministry of Environment - Environment Canada
Toronto - Canada

Consultant HSP Inc. Engineering and Environment Scientist
Harva - Ontario

Contractor Voyageurs Marine Contractors Co. Ltd
Dorion - Quebec

Period November 1992 - Official Performance Test
November 1993 - Additional Dredging

Job Description Dredging in the west and east slipways:
- lenght 200 m.
- width 30 m.
- depth 4-6 m.
of silty clay polluted with PCB and metals.
- thickness of sediment to be dredged 0.05 - 1.80 m.
Dredging carried out with a Pneuma Pump model 150/30/R, capacity 150 cu. m./hour of mixture, lifted by a crane mounted on an existing pontoon of the contractor, reflowing to the disposal site at a distance of Km 1.2 at the end of the east breakwater through a PEHD floating pipeline with submerged sections where crossing ship's ways of the harbour.
Presence of small and large debris, in the dredging area, from yard's construction activities during the years.

Volume of material Dredged During performance test (1992) 4.330 cu.m.
During additional dredging (1993) 3.000 cu.m.

Content of Solid
Material in the Dredged Mixture

Average 30% in volume of solid, where in presence of debries in the dredging area.
Up to 70% in volume of solid, in areas free from debris

Induced Turbidity

WITHIN THE LIMITS required for the Performance Test, notwithstanding the presence of small and larges debris

B. Report and References

Terms of References for the Contaminated Sediments Removal Technologies Demonstration Program - May 1991

Contaminated Sediment Removal Program - Program Status with a View to the Future - October 1993
Carol Burchberger - Environmental Protection Canada presented from:
Ian Orchard, Chief
Roger Santiago, Environmental Project Officer
Carol Buchberger, Environmental Project Officer

Innovative Technologies for the Remediation of Contaminated Sediments - December 1993
Sixth International Simposium - Santa Barbara - Cal. - USA
Ian Orchard and C. Buchberger - Environment Canada

Using the burden of evidence approach for sediment management case study Collingwood Harbour - May 1995
Sediment remediation 95 - Windsor - Canada
Crail Krantzemberg - Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy - Toronto Canada

Approach to Contaminated Sediment Management through Technology Innovation May 1995
Sediment remediation ' 95 - Windsor - Canada
Ian Orchard - Environment Canada - Environment Protection Branch, Ontario


  • Collingwood Harbour - November 1992
  • As a result of the demonstration, it was shown that this technology has proven ability to operate amongst an assortment of different sized debris.

    A comparison of the Pneuma Pump to a conventional cutterhead suction dredge (hydraulic), shows that the Pneuma Pump is capable of significantly lower concentrations of total suspended solids during operation.

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    5) Restoration of the Shenzhen Lake - Guandong Province (China) Dong Jiang Water Supply Bureau

    A. Operating Data Form

    Location: Shenzhen Water Reservoir (45 Km from Hong Kong)

    Customer: Dong Jiang Water Supply Bureau

    Period: Dredging started in january 2000 until now

    Job Description: Dredging at depth of 5-20 m of silt, clay sediment, polluted by the surrounding resident and industries, with reflow to the disposal site through a floating HDPE pipeline 2 Km for environmental reclamation. The reservoir is supplying drinking water to Hong Kong.

    Dredging Plant: Pneuma pump 150/30VS with vacuum system, capacity 180 cu.mt/h of mixture, installed on a dedicated pontoon locally built by the client.

    Content of solid material in dredging mixture: up to 70% of the in situ sediments

    Induced turbidity: Negligible

    B. Report and References

    Dredging & Reclamation (2000, 38 edition)
    Issued by: The Association of Dreding Equipment of China Water Resource Institute & China Hydroelectic Institute.

    Prepared by: Mr. Yuen Zhen Wen, deputy chief engineer and Mr. Chen Zhi Rong, chief of dredging team.

    Dredging of silt in Mackay harbour (Australia)

    In may 2004, Giles Group Australian Environmental Dredging of Mackay carried out with a new Pneuma dredge 300/60 - VS with vacuum system - capacity 360 cu.mt/h. of mixture the dredging of silt in the Mackay harbour.
    Dredging depth 6 mt. with reflow in hopper barges.
    The pictures show the dredge and the very high content of solid in the mixture.
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